THIS IS PART – 2 OF THE LIVING WORLD, PLEASE READ PART – 1 FOR BETTER LEARNING
TABLE OF CONTENT
The number and type of organisms found on earth
total described species = 1.7-1.8 million (17 – 18 lakh)
Following committees were made for unique names ‘
ICBN – International Code for Botanical Nomenclature
ICZN – International Code for Zoological Nomenclature
ICNB – International Code for Nomenclature of Bacteria.
ICNCP – International Code for Nomenclature of Cultivated Plants
ICVCN – International Code for Virus Classification and Nomenclature
ICVT – International Code for Virus Taxonomy.
This system is universally accepted and used because it is easier to understand and follow
GASPARD BAUHIN – he proposed first of all this system in his book PINAX.
Father of Binomial Nomenclature – Carolus Linnaeus
Each Binomial nomenclature name – two components – generic name and specific epithet.
Binomial names are generally in latin language and printed in italics
Handwritten BN are separately underlined to indicate their latin origin.
Generic name starts with capital letters and specific epithet with small LETTER.
Author’s name is written in abbreviated form after specific epithet.
- Panthera leo linn
- Species plantarum (1753) – plants were described
- Systema naturae (1758) – animals were described
- No names of plants are recognized before 1753.
- no names of animals are recognized before 1758
Branch of science dealing with the study of procedures and principles of classification.
|Classical Taxonomy||Modern Taxonomy|
|based on morphological features (external)||based on internal features|
|Ecological information of organism|
FUNDAMENTAL ELEMENTS OF TAXONOMY
Word used by Linnaeus in systema natura
Derived from latin word – systema (which means systematic arrangement of organism).
Systematics is the branch of science dealing with taxonomy + phylogeny
evolutionary relationship between organisms/ evolutionary history of an organism,
Also called neosystematics/Newsystematics
based on all characters such as
BIOSYSTEMATICS word given by Julian Huxley
4.5 billion years ago (earth was made) ——– 3.5 BYA (1prokaryotics) ———2.5 BYA (1 blue green algae) ————–1.5BYA( 1 eukaryotics)
All living organisms relate and they share common genetic material but upto varying degree.
WHAT IS LIFE ?
Complex organisation of molecules which interact among themselves
produce properties like – consciousness, growth etc
LEVEL OF ORGANISATION
Emergent properties – which present at high level of organization and not found in low level of organization.
tissue property arise due to interaction between comprising cell not due to consituent cell.
similarly – organelle specific function due to interaction between comprising molecules
life is a property of interaction
|DEFINING FEATURE||CHARACTERISTIC FEATURE|
|Shown by all living beings without exception||Shown by living organisms with exceptions.|
|never shown by non-living||may process by Non-living|
|e.g. 1) Metabolism |
3) Cellular organization
|e.g. 1) Growth|
|PROPERTY||LIVING ORGANISM||NON – LIVING||COMMENTS|
|CELLULAR ORGANISATION||yes |
Made up of cells
Protoplasm is absent in dead cell
|it is defining feature|
isolated metabolic reactions (invitro) are living reactions.
they are neither living nor non living things
|LOCOMOTION (CHANGE IN POSITION)||yes|
sessile animal can’t
plant can’t do
|no ||non – defining|
technically complicated term
it means to sense surroundings and respond to external stimuli
THE LIVING WORLD PART – 1
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