BIODIVERSITY IN LIVING WORLD – PART 2

THIS IS PART – 2 OF THE LIVING WORLD, PLEASE READ PART – 1 FOR BETTER LEARNING

TABLE OF CONTENT

INTRODUCTION

The number and type of organisms found on earth

total described species = 1.7-1.8 million (17 – 18 lakh)

Following committees were made for unique names ‘

ICBN – International Code for Botanical Nomenclature

ICZN – International Code for Zoological Nomenclature

ICNB – International Code for Nomenclature of Bacteria.

ICNCP – International Code for Nomenclature of Cultivated Plants

ICVCN – International Code for Virus Classification and Nomenclature

ICVT – International Code for Virus Taxonomy.

BIONOMIAL SYSTEM

This system is universally accepted and used because it is easier to understand and follow

GASPARD BAUHIN – he proposed first of all this system in his book PINAX.

Father of Binomial Nomenclature – Carolus Linnaeus

RULES

Each Binomial nomenclature name – two components – generic name and specific epithet.

Binomial names are generally in latin language and printed in italics

Handwritten BN are separately underlined to indicate their latin origin.

Generic name starts with capital letters and specific epithet with small LETTER.

Author’s name is written in abbreviated form after specific epithet.

  • Panthera leo linn

Books;-

  • Species plantarum (1753) – plants were described
  • Systema naturae (1758) – animals were described
  • No names of plants are recognized before 1753.
  • no names of animals are recognized before 1758

TAXONOMY

Branch of science dealing with the study of procedures and principles of classification.

Classical Taxonomy Modern Taxonomy
based on morphological features (external)based on internal features
development process
Ecological information of organism

FUNDAMENTAL ELEMENTS OF TAXONOMY

  • Characterization
  • Identification
  • Classification
  • Nomenclature

SYSTEMATICS

Word used by Linnaeus in systema natura

Derived from latin word – systema (which means systematic arrangement of organism).

Systematics is the branch of science dealing with taxonomy + phylogeny

evolutionary relationship between organisms/ evolutionary history of an organism,

BIOSYSTEMATICS

Also called neosystematics/Newsystematics

based on all characters such as

eyotological

biochemical

ecological

genetical etc

BIOSYSTEMATICS word given by Julian Huxley

4.5 billion years ago (earth was made) ——– 3.5 BYA (1prokaryotics) ———2.5 BYA (1 blue green algae) ————–1.5BYA( 1 eukaryotics)

All living organisms relate and they share common genetic material but upto varying degree.

WHAT IS LIFE ?

Complex organisation of molecules which interact among themselves

produce properties like – consciousness, growth etc

LEVEL OF ORGANISATION

Emergent properties – which present at high level of organization and not found in low level of organization.

tissue property arise due to interaction between comprising cell not due to consituent cell.

similarly – organelle specific function due to interaction between comprising molecules

LIFE PROCESS

life is a property of interaction

DEFINING FEATURE CHARACTERISTIC FEATURE
Shown by all living beings without exceptionShown by living organisms with exceptions.
never shown by non-livingmay process by Non-living
e.g. 1) Metabolism
2)consciousness
3) Cellular organization
e.g. 1) Growth
2) Reproduction
3) Locomotion

PROPERTY

PROPERTY LIVING ORGANISM NON – LIVINGCOMMENTS
CELLULAR ORGANISATION yes

Made up of cells
No

Protoplasm is absent in dead cell
it is defining feature
METABOLISM yes no

never shown
isolated metabolic reactions (invitro) are living reactions.
they are neither living nor non living things
defining
LOCOMOTION (CHANGE IN POSITION) yes

sessile animal can’t
plant can’t do
no

non – defining
CONSCIOUNESSyes

technically complicated term
it means to sense surroundings and respond to external stimuli

THE LIVING WORLD PART – 1

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