ERRORS IN DARK ROOM

DARK ROOM LAYOUT

~ A dark room must be large enough (ideal is 100square feet floor space and 11 feet ceiling height )  to accommodate all the necessary equipment without overcrowding.

~ Floor should be durable, easily cleaned , not slippery. Ceramic tiles of porcelain or natural clay are the most satisfactory.

~ The wall of the dark room do not have to be dark. The color chosen should first be judged under safe light illumination as it is important that there should be maximum reflection of safelight.

LOCATION IN DARK ROOM

 – It should be near to X- ray room.

 – If two X-rays room are there dark room must be preferably in between.

-Away from damp and hot areas.

-Accessible in terms of power and water supply.

-Completely light proof

– No windows.

1 – Fogged Film

Appearance :- Overall grey or poor contrast

Cause:- Improper lighting, light leaks, improper film storage film exposed to secondary radiation.

Remedy :- Test light with coin, use old film first.

2- Over developed film

Appearance :- Dark or black

Cause :– Hot developing solution

 Remedy: – Time / Temperature method

3 –  Discolored film

    Appearance : – Grayish yellow or brown

    Cause : – Use of exhausted fixer

    Remedy :-  Use of reasonably fresh solution

4 – Static marks

  Appearance : –Tree like black marks

 Cause : – Forcibly unwrapped or due to excessive flexing of film   

  Remedy : –Film should always be handled gently

 5- Developer cutoff

   Appearance : – White border on edges

 Cause :– Top position in rack not submerged in developer

   Remedy : – Keep tank full

 6 Marks and defects

     There are several different kinds of characteristic markings which appear when films are not handled gently.

       1.   Water marks are caused by water droplets on the film surface, which leave round dark spots  of various sizes because of migration of silver particles.

       2.   Air bell marks result from formation of air bubbles in the developer. A bubble prevents developer from reaching the underlying film, and so leaves a small clear circular spot on the radiograph.

      

EXPOSURE TECHNIQUE CHART

~ A properly designed and used technique chart standardizes the selection of exposure factors to help the radiographer produce consistent quality radiographs while minimizing exposure.

  ~ It help ensure that consistent image quality is achieved throughout the entire radiology department, they also decrease the number of repeat radiographic studies needed and therefore decreases the  patient’s exposure.

1-  Why do we use X-ray exposure chart?

  A good quality exposure chart is one of the most important tools to help you  achieve high quality radiographs and reduce the number of repeated X –rays that we take.

2- What factors can influence a technique chart?

1.Speed of screens

2.Speed of film

3.Age of screens

4.SID

5.Temperature of film processing

6.Type of grid.

 3- What factors should remain constant on a technique chart?

  1. SID

2. Amount of beam filtration

3.Film processing

4.Type of grid

4 – What are the variables that should change a technique chart?

1. Types of film

2.Type of screens used.

 THANK YOU

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