•Radiology is a department of medical imaging which deals with diagnosis and treatment of diseases in humans as well as in animals.
•There are different kinds of modalities which are present in radiology department such as X-ray, Ultrasound, CT, MRI, DEXA, Mammography, Fluoroscopy, PET Scan, DSA, etc.
•In medical imaging, the above mentioned modalities enables us to see internal body organs like bones, muscles, arteries, veins, blood and body fluids,etc.
The department consist of following members:-
- Receptionist – Patients take appointments, pay bills and asks for any queries they have from the receptionist.
- Nursing Staff – Nurses are there for checking peripheral IVs, monitor vital signs, medications and helps the patients in their various needs.
- Radio-Technologist – RTs performs the scans, evaluate patient health status and give brief explanation about the procedures.
- Radiologist – They are the doctors who are specialized in diagnosis and interpretation of the radiographs
•These are highly penetrating form of energy.
•Its energy is in the range of 124eV to 124keV .
•It is used in medical diagnosis like X-ray, CT, Fluoroscopy and Radiotherapy.
•It is also used for security purposes and in Cosmetic Surgeries.
A DISCOVERY THAT CHANGED THE MEDICAL WORLD
Sir Roentgen was awarded the first Nobel prize in physics in 1901 for his discovery of X- Rays. When asked about his thoughts at the moment of discovery, he replied “I didn’t think, I investigated”. He never took out any patent on x-rays, to ensure that the world could freely benefit from his work.
- Ultrasound are sound waves which have frequency higher than the upper audible limit of human hearing. .
- Ian Donald introduced ultrasound in diagnostic and medicine in 1956.
- Frequency range- more than 20kHz.
- Medical Imaging such as Obstetric USG, Doppler scan and of various body parts of humans as well as of animals.
- Field of communication
- Dermal treatments
- CT is a medical imaging method which is used in radiology to get highly detailed internal raiographs of body.
- Sir Godfrey Newbold Hounsfield invented CT Scanner.
Its uses :
- Medical purpose: Routine scans, Contrast Scans as well as Angiographic procedures
- Geological use
- Cultural heritage use
- Industrial use
MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING
- It is used for diagnostic purpose to obtain detailed image of anatomy as well as physiological processes of the body.
- In 1971 Sir Raymond Damadian invented MRI.
- In this modality, there is no ionizing radiation, only magnetic fields are there.
- It is more useful in imaging of soft tissue.
- It is widely use for medical purpose.
- Other than diagnostic use it is also used in paleontology and for forensic imaging.
- DEXA stands for “Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry” and is used for measuring bone mineral density.
- The bone density scan was invented by the late Sir John R. Cameron
- Two x-ray beams having different energy level are aimed at patient’s body.
- It is used to diagnose osteoporosis and osteopenia.
- Mammography (Mastography) deals with mammary gland examination which works on low energy x-rays.
- In late 1950s Sir Robert Egan combined a technique of low kVp with high mAs to devise a method of screening mammography.
- The aim of mammography is to identify early detection of unknown lesion or symptoms of Breast cancer.
- Mammography is done after a particular age , in patients older than 40 years .
- October is the Breast Cancer awareness month.
- It is an imaging modality that permits live x-ray imaging of patient.
- In late 1890’s Thomas Alva Edison began investigating materials for their ability to fluoresce and that led to invention of a fluoroscope.
- It allows us to visualize functioning and movements occurring inside the patient like swallowing, heart pumping action or motion, interventional radiology and image-guided surgery.
- DSA stands for “Digital Subtraction Angiography” which deals with blood vessels by subtracting bones and muscles.
- DSA was invented by a group of medical physicists headed by Sir Charles A. Mistretta
- It is useful in diagnosis and treatment of arterial and venous occlusions.
Positron Emission Tomography (PET)
- Positron Emission tomography(PET) is a functional imaging technique that uses radiotracers to see and measure metabolic processes like blood flow, chemical composition and absorption.
- Sir Edward J. Hoffman with Michael E. Phelps invented PET scanner which helps in detection of cancer, heart diseases and other severe illness.
- Radiotracers are injected in patient’s body and then they emit gamma rays which are detected by PET scanner.
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