INTRODUCTION TO MICROBIOLOGY

INTRODUCTION

The study of small living things

MICRO – small

BIO – living

LOGY- to study

faceless laboratory technician conducting chemical test

1. Microorganisms are everywhere, almost everywhere on earth even in volcanoes to the frozen sea.
2. We swallow millions of microbes every day with no ill effects. In fact, we are dependent on microbes to help us digest our food.
3.  Microbes also keep the biosphere running by carrying out essential functions such as decomposition of dead animals and plants.
4. They make possible the cycles of carbon, oxygen, nitrogen and sulfur that take place in terrestrial and aquatic systems.

Microbes play both helpful as well as harmful roles on human beings. E.g. Bacterias are responsible for production of dairy products, antibiotics at the same time they cause infections like typhoid,Syphilisetc.
There is vast scope in the field of microbiology due to the advancement in the field of science and technology

BRANCHES

Study of microbiology is further divided into many branches as following,

Bacteriology: Study of Bacteria.

Mycology: Study of Fungi.

Virology: Study of Viruses.

• Phycology: Study of Algae.

Protozoology : Study of Protozoa.

Microbial ecology: Study of interrelationships between microbes and environment.

Microbial morphology: Study of detailed structure of microorganisms.

Microbial taxonomy: Concerned with classification, naming and identification of microorganisms.

Microbial Physiology: Study of metabolism of microbes at cellular and molecular levels.

Microbial genetics and Molecular Biology: Study of genetic material, structure and function and biochemical reactions of microbial cells involved in metabolism and growth.

SCOPE OF MICROBIOLOGY

The scope in this field is immense due to the involvement of microbiology in many fields like medicine, pharmacy, diary, industry, clinical research, water industry, agriculture, chemical technology and nanotechnology.

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