Tissue fluid, when enters to the lymph capillaries, from the tissue spaces is called as the lymph.
Lymph is clear, colorless body fluid derived from & closely resembling to the blood.
The fluid within the lymph capillaries & vessels is known as lymph.
Special lymph capillaries — Lacteals
Lacteals-lymphatic vessels of the small intestine which absorb digested food.
collect digested fats( in chylomicrons)
chlyomicrons are lipoprotein particles that consist of Triglycerides, phospholipids, cholesterol & proteins. They transport dietary lipid from the intestine to other locations of the body.
Tissue fluid, when enters the lymph capillaries is known as lymph. The lymph capillaries unite to form larger vessels which eventually converted into two large ducts
2.Right lymphatic duct.
These ducts drain their lymph or fluid into the left & right innominate veins respectively.
COMPONENTS OF LYMPHATIC SYSTEM
2.Lymph nodes & other lymphatic tissue
Larger ones composed of 3 layers
tunica interna: endothelium and valves
tunica media: elastic fibers, smooth muscle
tunica externa: thin outer layer
Valves are present to prevent backflow.
The lymph nodes are the oval or bean or kidney shaped bodies.
They are located in the passage of lymphatic vessels.
They usually occurs in groups.
The concave border of the gland is called as hilum.
Efferent lymphatic vessels carries lymph from the lymph node.
Afferent lymphatic vessels enters lymph into the gland.
After entering the lymph gets filtered in lymph node by trapping of foreign particles & micro-organism.
Lymph reaches to blood only after passing through lymph node.
There are many groups of lymph nodes in the body such as, neck, axilla, thorax, abdomen & grain.
1.Production of lymphocytes and antibodies.
2.They acts as a filter & prevents spread of organism.
Largest lymphatic organ
Located to the left of the stomach below the diaphragm under 9th,10th & 11th ribs.
It is 12 cm long, 8 cm broad & 3 cm in thick, weighing 150 gm in adult.
It is surrounded by kidney, colon, & pancreas.
Red pulp contains all the components of circulating blood
White pulp is similar to lymphatic nodules
Spleen is covered with persitonium. Below this,is the layer of connective tissue capsules, fibroelastic capsules, that dips into organ,forming trabeculae.
The cellular element, consisting of lymphocytes & macrophages, is called splenic pulp. It lies between trabeculae.
It consists of spleen artery, spleen vein, lymph vessels & nerves.
Blood passing through the spleen passes through sinusoids, instead of capillaries, allowing it to come in contact with splenic pulp.
FUNCTIONS OF SPLEEN
Erythrocytes are destroyed in spleen, other cellular materials such as leukocyte, platelets and microbes are also phagocytosed in the spleen.
Erythrocytes are formed by spleen in fetal as well as in adult.
3.Red cell storage
During stress, it can liberate 150 ml of blood, since it acts as reservoir of red blood cells.
The spleen provides defense against infection by tubercle bacillus.
Location – behind the sternum in the mediastinum
The capsule divides it into 2 lobes
Infant – conspicuous
Puberty – maximum size
Maturity – decreases in size
At birth, gland is small increases in size till puberty and shrinks again the thymus is concerned with antibodies production.
secretes hormones (thymopoietin, thymulin and thymosins)
It also controls the lymphocyte production by spleen & other spleen glands.
In elderly mostly fatty and fibrous tissue
Multiple groups of large lymphatic nodules
Location – mucous membrane of the oral and pharyngeal cavities
Palatine tonsils – Posterior-lateral walls of the oropharynx
Pharyngeal tonsil-Posterior wall of nasopharynx
Lingual tonsils-Base of tongue
FUNCTIONS OF LYMPHATIC SYSTEM
To return the tissue fluid to the general circulation
Transportation of lymphocytes from lymph glands to the circulation
The lymph nodes filter & destroy the microorganisms thereby preventing the spread of the infection.
Antibody formation by the lymph glands for protection of the body.
Lymphangitis – Inflammation of the lymph vessels
Lymphedema— Occurs due to accumulation of lymphatic fluid in the interstitial tissue.
Lymphadenopathy— Means a disease of the lymph nodes Lymph nodes become swollen/ enlarged and may be painful to touch
Lymphomas— Cancers originating either from the lymphocytes in the lymph nodes or the lymphatic tissue in organs Risk factors — HIV, Hepatitis.
Tonsillitis—Infection of the pharyngeal tonsils
Tonsils are swollen, Fever and pain during swallowing usually present. Treatment – surgical removal of tonsils (Tonsillectomy)
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