TERATOGENIC EXPOSURE

Teratogenic exposure

Teratogen it is an agent which can cause abnormalities in the function of a developing fetus.

It can lead to:

birth defects

Foetal loss Impaired neurological performance

Foetal growth restriction

Effect depends on :

• teratogens

• period of Pregnancy at which exposure occurs

FETAL GROWTH PERIODS

There are 3 fetal growth periods:

1. PRE EMBRYONIC PERIOD

from the day of fertilization to 2 weeks after fertilization.

ALL OR NONE LAW in this period which means fetus loss or fetus escapes the effect (No effect).

2. EMBRYONIC PERIOD

3 weeks after fertilization to 8 weeks after fertilization

MAX BIRTH DEFECTS

MOST TERATOGENIC PERIOD

3. FETAL PERIOD

≥9 WEEKS after fertilization

defect in GROWTH OF FETUS and NEUROLOGICAL IMPAIRMENT (no) birth defects)

Teratogens can be:

-Drugs

-Radiation exposure

~Alcohol

~Maternal infections

~Maternal illness, DM – hyperglycemia is teratogenic – increase in body temperature of mother ≥ 1.5°C can lead to cleft lip and cleft palate

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