Teratogen it is an agent which can cause abnormalities in the function of a developing fetus.
It can lead to:
Foetal loss Impaired neurological performance
Foetal growth restriction
Effect depends on :
• period of Pregnancy at which exposure occurs
FETAL GROWTH PERIODS
There are 3 fetal growth periods:
1. PRE EMBRYONIC PERIOD
from the day of fertilization to 2 weeks after fertilization.
ALL OR NONE LAW in this period which means fetus loss or fetus escapes the effect (No effect).
2. EMBRYONIC PERIOD
3 weeks after fertilization to 8 weeks after fertilization
MAX BIRTH DEFECTS
MOST TERATOGENIC PERIOD
3. FETAL PERIOD
≥9 WEEKS after fertilization
defect in GROWTH OF FETUS and NEUROLOGICAL IMPAIRMENT (no) birth defects)
Teratogens can be:
~Maternal illness, DM – hyperglycemia is teratogenic – increase in body temperature of mother ≥ 1.5°C can lead to cleft lip and cleft palate
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